Exercise was also found to be more effective than drugs after you’ve had a stroke. The only time drugs beat exercise, was for the recovery from heart failure. The drugs used in this study were diuretics.
Exercise is in fact so potent that researchers suggested that drug companies ought to be required to include it for comparison when conducting clinical trials for new drugs.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT), which requires but a fraction of the time compared to conventional cardio, has been shown to be FAR more effective. It’s also the only exercise that really gives you an efficient cardiovascular workout.